The New Constitution of the United States


The Constitution of the United States

Preamble

We the People hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, among these are life, liberty, property, and the pursuit of happiness. — That to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed.

We the People of the United States, in order to secure said rights, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

Article I – The Legislative Branch

Section 1 – The Legislature

All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.

Section 2 – The House of Representatives

The House of Representatives shall be composed of members chosen every second year by the people of the several states, and the electors in each state shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the state legislature.

No person shall be a representative who shall not have attained to the age of twenty five years, and been seven years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state in which he shall be chosen. No person shall be eligible to become a representative who currently holds or has held in the last 18 months any elected office or position of public trust.

Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned among the several states which may be included within this union, according to their respective populations of citizens. The actual count shall be that made under the prior United States Constitution, and within every subsequent term of ten Years, in such manner as they shall by law direct. The number of representatives shall not exceed one for every five hundred thousand, but each state shall have at least one representative.

When vacancies happen in the representation from any state, the executive authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies.

The House of Representatives shall choose their speaker and other officers; and shall have the sole power of impeachment. No representative or group thereof shall have any advantage over any other representative or group due to affiliation with any person, group, or party.

Section 3 – The Senate

The senate of the United States shall be composed of two senators from each state, chosen by the legislature thereof for six years; and each senator shall have one vote.

Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of the first election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. The seats of the senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the second year, of the second class at the expiration of the fourth year, and of the third class at the expiration of the sixth year, so that one third may be chosen every second year. When vacancies happen in the representation of any state in the senate, the executive authority of such state shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: provided, that the legislature of any state may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as that state’s legislature may direct.

No person shall be a senator who shall not have attained to the age of thirty years, and been nine years a citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state for which he shall be chosen. No person shall be eligible to run for election to be a senator who currently holds or has held in the last 18 months any elected office or position of public trust.

The Vice President of the United States shall be president of the senate, but shall have no vote, unless they be equally divided.

The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a president pro tempore, in the absence of the vice president, or when he shall exercise the office of president of the United States.

The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. When sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: And no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two thirds of the members present.

Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honor, trust or profit under the United States: but the party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment and punishment, according to law.

Section 4 – Elections, Meetings

The times, places and manner of holding elections for senators and representatives, shall be prescribed in each state by the legislature thereof.

The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3d day of January. Each session of congress shall last no longer than 180 consecutive days. There shall only be one session of congress each year unless congress is called into extra session by the president of the United States. Such extra session, if called, shall be limited to the purposes so stated by the president when he calls congress to extra session. An extra session of congress shall last no longer than 30 consecutive days.

Section 5 – Membership, Rules, Journals, Adjournment

Each house shall be the judge of the elections, returns, and qualifications of its own members, and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the attendance of absent members, in such manner, and under such penalties as each house may provide.

Each house may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish its members for disorderly behavior, and, with the concurrence of two thirds, expel a member.

Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such parts as may in their judgment require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the members of either house on any question shall be entered on the Journal. Any part judged to require secrecy shall be made part of the public journal after 20 years from the date said part was so judged.

Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.

Section 6 – Compensation

The senators and representatives shall receive a compensation for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out of the treasury of the United States. No law, varying the compensation for the services of the senators and representatives, shall take effect, until an election of representatives shall have intervened. The maximum allowable compensation shall be no more than the median income of the citizens of the state that elected the Senator or Representative. They shall in all cases, except treason, felony, and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest during their attendance at the session of their respective houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any speech or debate in either house, they shall not be questioned in any other place.

No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the Emoluments whereof shall have been increased during such time; and no Person holding any Office under the United States, shall be a Member of either House during his Continuance in Office.

Section 7 – Revenue Bills, Legislative Process, Presidential Veto

All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with amendments as on other bills.

No bill can be voted on in either house until it has been read aloud to the members assembled in that house.

Every bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a law, be presented to the President of the United States: If he approves he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his objections to that house in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at large on their journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such reconsideration two thirds of that house shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other house, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that house, it shall become a law. But in all such cases the votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be entered on the journal of each House respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the President within ten Days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the congress by their adjournment prevent its return, in which case it shall not be a law.

Every order, resolution, or vote to which the concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of adjournment) shall be presented to the president of the United States; and before the same shall take effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the Rules and Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill.

Section 8 – Powers of Congress

The Congress shall have power To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises, to pay the debts and provide for the common defense and general well being of the United States; but all duties, imposts and excises shall be uniform throughout the United States;

To borrow Money on the credit of the United States but limited to a maximum indebtedness of no more then the total of taxes collected in the previous five years;

To regulate commerce with foreign Nations;

To establish an uniform rule of naturalization;

To coin money that is backed by gold, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign coin, and uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States;

To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities and current coin of the United States;

To fix the standard of weights and measures;

To establish post offices and post roads;

To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited times (not to exceed 25 years) to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries;

To constitute tribunals inferior to the supreme court;

To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high Seas, in the air, or in space, and Offenses against the law of Nations;

To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and make rules concerning captures on/in land, water, air, or space;

To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money to that use shall be for a longer term than two years;

To provide and maintain naval, air, and space forces;

To make rules for the government and regulation of the land, air, space, and naval Forces;

To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws of the union, suppress insurrections and repel invasions;

To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the militia, and for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the United States, reserving to the states respectively, the appointment of the officers, and the authority of training the militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;

To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever, over such district (not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession of particular states, and the acceptance of congress, become the seat of the government of the United States, and to exercise like authority over all places purchased by the consent of the legislature of the state in which the same shall be, for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dock-yards, and other needful buildings; –and

To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers vested by this constitution in the government of the United States, or in any department or officer thereof.

Section 9 – Limits on Congress

The privilege of the writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it.

No bill of attainder or ex post facto law shall be passed.

No capitation, or other direct, tax shall be laid, unless in proportion to the census or enumeration herein before directed to be taken. Except the congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several states, and without regard to any census or enumeration. No tax on income or property shall exceed 10 percent of said income or property. Every tax shall have the same rate for every person.

No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any state.

No tax may be levied on the value added to any product, substance, or service.

No tax may be levied on the people whose purpose is other than to raise revenue for legitimate government purposes, and in particular Congress shall not levy a tax on the people for the purpose of coercing their personal behavior, including the purchase of a product or service or to refrain therefrom.

No preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or revenue to the ports of one state over those of another; nor shall vessels bound to, or from, one state, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in another.

Congress shall not withhold federal funding for a state under any federal program because it does not comply with congressional dictates.

No law or regulation may be imposed on the state or the citizens thereof without a direct vote of both houses of congress.

No law or regulation may favor one person or group over another person or group.

No money shall be drawn from the treasury, but in consequence of appropriations made by law; and a regular statement and account of the receipts and expenditures of all public money shall be published from time to time.

No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States: And no person holding any office of profit or trust under them, shall, without the consent of the Congress, accept of any present, emolument, office, or title, of any kind whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign state.

Article II – The Executive Branch

Section 1 – The President

The executive power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his office during the term of four years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same term, be elected, as follows:

Each state shall appoint, in such manner as the legislature thereof may direct, a number of electors, equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives to which the state may be entitled in the Congress: but no senator or representative, or person holding an office of trust or profit under the United States, shall be appointed an elector.

The electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote by ballot for two persons, of whom one at least shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves. And they shall make a list of all the persons voted for, and of the number of votes for each; which list they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the president of the Senate. The president of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. The person having the greatest number of votes shall be the president, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such majority, and have an equal number of votes, then the House of representatives shall immediately choose by ballot one of them for President; and if no person have a majority, then from the five highest on the list the said House shall in like manner choose the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; A quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. In every case, after the choice of the President, the person having the greatest number of votes of the electors shall be the Vice President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal votes, the senate shall choose from them by ballot the Vice President.

The congress may determine the time of choosing the electors, and the day on which they shall give their Votes; which day shall be the same throughout the United States.

No person except a natural born citizen shall be eligible to the office of President; neither shall any person be eligible to that office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty five Years, and been fourteen years a resident within the United States. No person shall be eligible to the office of president who currently holds or has held in the last 18 months any elected office or position of public trust.

In case of the removal of the President from office, or of his death, resignation, or inability to discharge the powers and duties of the said office, the same shall devolve on the Vice President, and the congress may by law provide for the case of removal, death, resignation or inability, both of the President and Vice President, declaring what officer shall then act as President, and such officer shall act accordingly, until the disability be removed, or a President shall be elected.

The President shall, at stated times, receive for his services, a compensation, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that period any other emolument from the United States, or any of them. The maximum compensation shall be no greater then twice the then current compensation of a member of Congress.

Before he enter on the execution of his office, he shall take the following oath or affirmation: –”I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.”

Section 2 – Civilian Power over Military, Cabinet, Pardon Power, Appointments

The President shall be commander in chief of the army and navy of the United States, and of the militia of the several states, when called into the actual service of the United States; he may require the opinion, in writing, of the principal officer in each of the executive departments, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices, and he shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons for offenses against the United States, except in cases of impeachment.

He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to make treaties, provided two thirds of the senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, shall appoint ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, judges of the supreme court, and all other officers of the United States, whose appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by law: but the Congress may by law vest the appointment of such inferior officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the courts of law, or in the heads of departments.

The President shall have power to fill up all vacancies that may happen during the recess of the Senate, by granting commissions which shall expire at the end of their next session or when the Senate reconvenes whichever first occurs.

Section 3 – state of the Union, Convening Congress

He shall from time to time give to the Congress information of the state of the union, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary occasions, convene both houses, or either of them, and in case of disagreement between them, with respect to the time of adjournment, he may adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper; he shall receive ambassadors and other public ministers; he shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed, and shall commission all the Officers of the United States.

Section 4 – Disqualification

The President, Vice President and all civil officers of the United States, shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction of, treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors.

Article III – The Judicial Branch

Section 1 – Judicial powers

The judicial power of the United States shall be vested in one supreme court, and in such inferior courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The judges, both of the supreme and inferior courts, shall hold their Offices during good behavior, and shall, at stated times, receive for their services a compensation, which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office. The compensation of supreme justices shall not be more than that of the president of the United States and the compensation of inferior justices shall not be more than a member of Congress.

Section 2 – trial by Jury, Original jurisdiction, Jury Trials

The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law and equity, arising under this Constitution, the laws of the United States, and treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority; to all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls; to all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction; to controversies to which the United States shall be a party; to controversies between two or more states; between a state and citizens of another state, between citizens of different states, between citizens of the same state claiming lands under grants of different states, and between a state, or the citizens thereof, and foreign States, citizens or subjects.

In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls, and those in which a state shall be party, the supreme court shall have original jurisdiction. In all the other cases before mentioned, the supreme court shall have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions, and under such regulations as the Congress shall make.

The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by Jury; and such trial shall be held in the state where the said crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any state, the trial shall be at such place or places as the Congress may by law have directed.

Section 3 – Treason

Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying war against them, or in adhering to their Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to the same overt Act, or on Confession in open court.

The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment of Treason, but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of Blood, or Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person attained.

Article IV – The States

Section 1 – Each state to Honor All Others

Full faith and credit shall be given in each state to the public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other state. Congress may by general laws prescribe the manner in which such acts, records and proceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof.

Section 2 – State Citizens, Extradition

The citizens of each state shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of citizens in the several states.

A person charged in any state with treason, felony, or other crime, who shall flee from justice, and be found in another state, shall on demand of the executive authority of the state from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the state having jurisdiction of the crime.

Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.

Section 3 – New States

New states may be admitted by the Congress into this union; but no new state shall be formed or erected within the jurisdiction of any other state; nor any state be formed by the junction of two or more states, or parts of Sstates, without the consent of the legislatures of the states concerned as well as of the Congress.

The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all needful rules and regulations respecting the territory or other property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitution shall be so construed as to prejudice any claims of the United States, or of any particular state.

Section 4 – Republican Government

The United States shall guarantee to every state in this union a republican form of government, and shall protect each of them against invasion; and on application of the legislature, or of the executive (when the legislature cannot be convened), against domestic violence.

Section 5 – Powers Prohibited of States

No state shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation; grant letters of marque and reprisal; coin money; emit bills of credit; make any thing but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts; pass any bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts, or grant any title of nobility.

No state shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any imposts or duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing it’s inspection laws: and the net produce of all duties and imposts, laid by any state on imports or exports, shall be for the use of the treasury of the United States; and all such laws shall be subject to the revision and control of the Congress.

No state shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty of tonnage, keep troops, or ships of war in time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact with another state, or with a foreign power, or engage in war, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will not admit of delay.

Article V – Amendment

The Congress, whenever two thirds of both houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose amendments to this Constitution, or, on the application of the legislatures of one third of the several states, shall approve their proposed amendment, which, in either case, shall be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of this Constitution, when ratified by a sixty percent vote of the legislatures of three fourths of the several states, or by sixty percent popular vote in three fourths thereof, or any combination thereof; provided that no amendment which may be made shall in any manner affect the first five clauses in the ninth section of the first article or any of the first ten sections of the seventh article; and that no state shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in the senate.

Any proposed amendment must be ratified by two thirds of the several states within seven years of first being proposed or it will no longer be valid for ratification.

Article VI – Debts, Supremacy, Oaths

All debts contracted and engagements entered into, before the adoption of this cConstitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as under the Constitution. Until such time as three fourths of the states of the former union ratify this Constitution said debts shall be prorated according to the percentage of the population that are subject to this Constitution.

All laws enacted under the prior Constitution shall remain in effect for two years after the Adoption of this Constitution. Any law or treaty not explicitly and separately reenacted by the new congress shall then expire.

This Constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall be made in pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the land; and the judges in every state shall be bound thereby, any thing in the Constitution or laws of any state to the contrary notwithstanding. No treaty can be made that abridges the rights of the people in article seven of this Constitution.

The senators and representatives before mentioned, and the members of the several state legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers, both of the United States and of the several states, shall be bound by oath or affirmation, to support this constitution; but no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United States.

The official language of the United States shall be English. All business, laws, documents, proceedings, etc. shall only be in English. Each state shall adopt a single official language for their state in their respective constitutions but if that language is not English they must provide translation services into English for all citizens requesting it.

Article VII – Rights of the People

Section 1 – Freedom of Religion, Press, Expression

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.

Section 2 – Right to Bear Arms

The right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed.

Section 3 – Quartering of Soldiers

No soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

Section 4 – Search and Seizure

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.

Section 5 – trial and Punishment, Compensation for Takings

No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself or spouse, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use.

Section 6 – Right to Speedy trial, Confrontation of Witnesses

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the state and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense.

Section 7 – trial by Jury in Civil cases

In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed the value of twenty five grams of gold, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-examined in any court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.

Section 8 – Cruel and Unusual Punishment

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

Section 9 – Construction of Constitution

The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

Section 10 – Powers of the States and People

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, and to the people.

Section 11 – Citizenship Rights

All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the state wherein they reside. No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.

Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each state. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice-President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the executive and judicial officers of a state, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the citizens of such state, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such citizens shall bear to the whole number of citizens twenty-one years of age in such state.

No person shall be a senator or representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice-President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any state, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any state legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any state, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof.

Section 12 – No Bar to Vote

The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, gender, beliefs, or previous condition of servitude.<

The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for senator or representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any state by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax.

Article VIII – Ratification, Interim Elected Officials

The ratification of this Constitution by any of the several states by the consent of the legislatures or vote of the people of each state shall be sufficient for the establishment of this Constitution between the states so ratifying the same. Once three fourths of the states ratify this Constitution all states shall be subject to this constitution. Other states, provinces, or territories of any country may join the United States by the consent of the legislatures or vote of the people of such state, province, or territory. As each state, province, or territory ratifies this constitution the properties owned by its former higher government becomes the property of the United States federal government under this Constitution.

As each existing state ratifies this Constitution their existing legislature will select Representatives and Senators to fill the terms held by the ones filling those positions in the old government. Those new congress members will appoint an interim President and Vice President to serve out the existing term of office. No person shall be eligible to be appointed to any of these positions who currently holds or has held in the last 18 months any elected office or position of public trust.